Thrybergh Ravenfield Dalton

South Yorkshire England

            Pronounced locally Thrybur  Old English Triberg

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Early Times



St. Leonards Cross Thrybergh from Saxon times drawing by Anna or James Ross 1817


St. Leonards Cross in its original positionWhat we can learn about the region can be somewhat of a culture shock, but here are the facts. Stone age man has been found in evidence close to Roche Abbey.

Nearby in Wickersley which has been a notable source of stone through the centuries a Neolithic polished stone axe  was discovered, which is evidence that the area surrounding Thrybergh was habituated since the Neolithic age. Therefore early farming of the land may have taken place.


The Celts or Kelts started appearing on the east coast of Yorkshire around 450 to 500 BC, now here is the first shock, the name of one clan was the Parisi. recognize the name? Yes Paris in France. [ I just knew the French would creep into this somehow. ] The region  now known as Paris was also occupied during the same period by the same clan, as was the Region now known as Ulster in Northern Ireland.

The other clan was the Brigantes who were dominant in what is now South Yorkshire and Northern Yorkshire.


Yorkshire became a stronghold of the Celts and it is only a couple of years ago in the Wetwang area of East Yorkshire. that a Celtic Iron Age tomb was found, inside the Tomb was a warrior queen's chariot, and the skeleton of the Queen.


Yorkshire is the main area in England where Celtic two wheeled vehicles have been uncovered, and of course the language of the Celts is evident in the local dialect of Thrybergh as it is throughout Yorkshire and neighbouring counties. In fact many of the words used in the English language had their origins in Yorkshire. When the Celts were driven out of Yorkshire some of them fled to North Wales and it is not to long ago that the sheepmen of the Yorkshire Dales were using the same Celtic language as the people of North Wales to count their stock.

Some of the Celtic words used in forming many of the place names known today :

ABER--River mouth or ford













GLAN--River Bank

HAMPS--Dry stream in summer

LLAN-Church -





PEN, BRYN--Hill, Head




TRE--Hamlet, Village, Town



Now old Julius Caesar apparently paid a visit to England in 54 and 55 B. C.  but the main Roman Conquest occurred in 43 AD . in the time of the emperor Claudius.

Once again the people of the North met their invaders with fierce resistance but they were no match for the disciplined Legions of Rome, in circa 50 A. D. the ruler of the Brigantines was Queen Cartimandua who was not a pleasant character. Unfortunately for the good Queen her ex husband Venutius had a bit of a tantrum and led an uprising which occurred 69 A. D, this uprising apparently removed Cartimandua from power.  It was circa 71 A. D. before the Romans ruled the north of  Britain.


Now a small village, where once stood Isuer, the capital of the brigantes, in British times; their origin was possibly near the river Isere,  in the Alps, around Savoy and Piedmont, it then flows through Dauphiny, and merges into the Rhine, near Valence.
The brigantes were, for a long time, limited within the counties of what are now called York, and Durham; but overcharged, in all probability, with their own numbers, about the commencement of Christianity, they detached a strong party across the hills, which extend from Derbyshire to Scotland, and, into the countries of Sistuntii and Valantii, beyond them. These, apprehensive of the invasion, and providing against the danger, seem to have wisely entered into a strict and intimate' alliance.—They entered, however, in vain; unable, with their united forces, to resist the vigour of the invaders, they were
obliged to submit; when all that extensive region that is now divided into the five counties of Durham, York, Westmorland, Cumberland, and Lancashire, owned their subjection to the brigantian capital, Isuer.
Here reigned, before the year 50, Venutius, and his queen, Cartismandua;* who, in concert with her paramour, Volocatus,  contrived to depose that brave but unfortunate prince. The brothers and relations of Venutius, called in allies; and, by their assistance, reduced Cartismandua to extremities. On her application to the Romans, their light troops, and cohorts, were sent to her assistance.
In the mean time, Caractacus, king of the silures, famous for his military exploits, having defended his country against the Romans, for nine successive years, was, at length, entirely defeated, and sought for protection amongst the brigantes; where he fell into the power of Cartismandua; and was, by her order, delivered into the hands of his enemies.
Vsnutius  being still at the head of the greater part of the brigantian forces; and, in alliance with the silures, and other states, on the defeat of Caractacus, took the chief command of the confederates; and, for a while, made a noble stand against the common enemy, but, was at length defeated, by Petilius Cerealis; who also laid waste a great part of the country.
The victorious. Agricola, completed the conquest of the brigantes, about the year 79; after which, that consummate general remained some time amongst then, erecting fortresses, to secure his conquests; while, at the same time, he endeavoured to conciliate the affections of the britons, by every possible display of politeness and humanity; riveting their chains by
incitements to luxury, and the charms of dissipation, encouraging and assisting them in building spacious temples, magnificent galleries, sumptuous bagnios, and places for public assemblies.*
About this time, it is probable that Agricola, preferring the situation to that of Iseur, laid the foundation of Eboracum , which, soon after, became the head quarters of the roman army.
Dion Cassius the roman historian, who was Hv- * Tacitus Vit. Agric. , *


The Romans had established a Roman Fort at Templebrough, [ Remembering Rotherham has a town did not exist at this time!] the fort was made of timber with dimensions of 495 X 490 feet with a 18 foot wide outer ditch, and a rampart constructed with turf.
Garrisoned by Cohors IV Gallorum equitata in the beginning of the2nd century.


The Romans were also present in nearby Doncaster and Rossington.  Roman coins have been found within the vicinity of Thrybergh. Most of the older existing roadways present in England today are the ancient footpaths and tracks made by our ancestor's, so it is more than likely that the road we now know as Doncaster Road was a main thoroughfare between these two settlements.  There was a Roman Road from Derby to Rotherham, and one from Rotherham to Manchester. When you look at a map of the area Thrybergh is on a straight line between Rotherham and Doncaster, and also the easiest route regarding the local terrain. The Romans were present in Templeborough, at the other side of Rotherham and a Roman road was constructed, local historians believe that road made it's way from Templeborough, to Eastwood, then Dalton, Thrybergh, Hooton Roberts, Conisborough, and Doncaster. The latter being a Roman Fort.

Though earlier historians suggest the route passed through Greaseborough, across to Rawmarsh, and crossing the river Don at a ford located at Mexborough, personally considering that the ford at Mexbrough was possibly often subject to rises in water level, thus making it difficult to cross, I believe the first route is more the likely, being so Thrybergh would have been an ideal place of rest for travelers making their way to Doncaster.

One has to consider that the Romans were quite capable of building bridges, and indeed built one at nearby Rossington where a considerable size Roman fort was established it is suggested during the Claudian invasion 43.A. D.  So there is no reason why they could not have built a bridge in Rotherham and Mexbrough.

It is probable  that cultivation had already started in the area, as by the time the Romans arrived on our little shores they found large areas of cleared Forest and signs of early farming in England, and it is noted that rudimentary farming had existed prior to the arrival of the Celts.

It has to be remembered that in the Roman occupation York was more the capital of England than London.


The Roman Commander of York Garrison, Gaius Flavius Constantinius and his wife Helen were both Christians. Gaius died in 306 ad. at which time , his son, Flavius Valerius Aurilius Constantinius [ Why couldn't they just call him Con ?] became Commander. In the year 324 ad., he became Emperor Constantine of Rome whilst still at York. His mother became Queen Helen. Helen convinced her son who was not a Christian at the time to decree that Christianity be the religion of the Roman Empire. So you could say that the Church of Rome as it is known today had it's start in Yorkshire! Well we can stretch a point here.

Up the road from Thrybergh in Conisbrough, Christianity was practiced by Romans and Saxons, and there is a strong likelihood that it was also being practiced in Thrybergh at this time. The Romans left England around 400 AD to defend Rome, which left England in a bit of disorder to say the least.

England was now practically defenceless against the plunderers of Northern Europe, and so began the "Dark Ages"




I have no affiliation  with any Trade Union, Political body, or organization regarding the information on this site. All information on this site is Factual and correct to the extent of my knowledge. There is no intent to cause offence to any individual. Should you spot an error please let me know  and that error will be corrected.


This site is the result of over 7 years research, and compilation, should you wish to use any of the content for publication of literature please contact me. The poetry and life of James Ross, the story of St. Leonard's Cross, and other items on this site were compiled, and first published on this site in their present context as a study of Thrybergh. If you use this site as a source, out of courtesy, please give credit where it is due as I have done on this site where appropriate.
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