DIED WITHOUT ISSUE :-
Issue referred in legal terms to somebody's offspring, and to have died
without issue simply meant there was no heir
We know the peppercorn as a small dried tropical berry that is ground to
make pepper for use as a seasoning, it was also the term used for something
insignificant: something that is very small or has little importance or
value. So when you see the term Peppercorn Rent it is referring to a very
Today we think only of a rabbit habitat: a group of connected burrows where
rabbits live and breed, but it used to also refer to a crowded building or
area: an area or building that is crowded or has a complicated layout.
An area for game animals: a piece of ground where game animals are kept and
It comes from the 14th century. Anglo-Norman warenne "enclosed area for
man·or [ mánnər ] (plural man·ors)
A noble's house and land: a house and the land surrounding it, owned by a
mes·suage [ mésswij ]
A dwelling and its land: a dwelling with its outbuildings and the
surrounding land that is used by the dwelling's occupants
moi·e·ty [ móy ətee ] (plural moi·e·ties)
One of two parts: either of two parts, not necessarily equal, into which
something is or can be divided ( formal )
So if someone gained a moiety of a property, they gained a part of a
war·rant [ wáwrənt ]
We think of warrent as used in " A warrent for his arrest it is an
authorization: something that authorizes somebody to do something
2. written authorization: a written authorization or certifying document
3. document authorizing police to do something: a document that gives police
specific rights or powers such as the right to search or arrest somebody
Used also in the feet of fines as a means to prevent a challenge over
ownership of a property [ see below ]
A term used in the Christian church and the feet of fines, often when a
manor and land contained a church the owner was given the Advowson which was
the right of selecting a person to a church living or benefice i.e. the
priest or vicar
DOWER and JOINTURE:-
In English law, dower was one third. However, in the early modern period, it
was common for a wife to bar her right to dower in advance under a marriage
settlement, under which she agreed to take instead a jointure, that is a
particular interest in her husband's property, either a particular share, or
a life interest in a particular part of the land, or an annuity. This was
often part of an arrangement by which she gave up her property to her
husband in exchange for her jointure, which would accordingly be greater
than a third. Strictly dower was only available from land that her husband
owned, but a life tenant under a settlement was often given power to appoint
a jointure for his wife. The wife would retain her right to dower (if not
barred by a settlement) even if her husband sold the property; however this
right could be barred by a fictituous court proceeding known as levying a
fine, by which she and her husband formally remitted their right to the
property to the purchaser. The widow of a copyholder was usually provided
for by the custom of the manor with freebench, an equivalent right to dower,
but often (but not necessarily) a half, rather than a third.
A female is known by suffix Dowager when she no longer occupies the position
she held during the marriage. For example, a widowed countess is called
"Dowager Countess" (the next Earl's wife is then the Countess); Elizabeth
Bowes-Lyon was technically the Dowager Queen after the demise of George VI
(though she was given the personal title "Queen Mother"),
[L. querens, p. pr. of queri to complain.]
(O. Eng. Law) A complainant; a plaintiff.
[OF. deforciant, p. pr. of deforcier. See Deforce.]
(Eng. Law) (a) One who keeps out of possession the rightful owner of an
(b) One against whom a fictitious action of fine was brought. [Obs.] Burrill.
Webster 1913 Dictionary edited by Patrick J. Cassidy
The virgate was a unit of land area measure in Medieval England. It was
equivalent to 1⁄4 of a hide or 1⁄4 of a carucate.
HIDE (unit) :-
The hide, in some places referred to as a carucate, was a variable unit of
land area used in medieval England, defined according to its arable yield
and taxable potential rather than its exact dimensions. This gave it a range
of approximately 60 to 120 old acres, or 15 to 30 modern acres (6 to 12
hectares), depending on fertility.
A hide could agriculturally support one household and five hides were
expected to produce one fully armed soldier in times of war. This definition
was articulated by Athelstan: If a ceorl thrived, so that he had fully five
hides of land, church and kitchen, bell-house and back gatescal, and special
duty in the king's hall, then he was thenceforth of thane-right worthy.
Ten hides were formed into a tithing, ten tithings made a hundred, and a
number of hundreds were grouped to form a shire.
[LL. carucata, carrucata. See Carucage.]
A plowland; as much land as one team can plow in a year and a day; -- by
some said to be about 100 acres. Burrill.
Webster 1913 Dictionary
The carucate was both a unit of assessment and a peasant landholding unit
found in most of the Danelaw counties of England. The word derives from
caruca, Latin for a plough. In the Domesday Book the carucate was a nominal
120 acres (490,000 m²), based on the area a plough team could till in a
year. It is equivalent to the hide, the measurement of land for tax
assessment used outside Danelaw counties. A quarter of a hide was known as a
bovate was a measure of land which could be ploughed in one year by one
eighth of a plough team with eight oxen, or in other words the measure of
land representing one eighth of a carucate. The term is used in the Domesday
Book for places under the Danelaw. The word is derived from the Latin word
bōs, meaning ox.
A legally binding arrangement between parties:
The transfer of a title, right, or claim to another.
To renounce all claim to (a possession or right).
To relinquish a claim to; surrender by deed.
A grant of lands as a fee.
Middle English feffement, from Anglo-Norman feoffement, from feoffer, to put
in legal possession, from Old French fief , fief.
LICENTIA CONCORDANDI, estates, conveyancing, practice:-
.When an action is brought for the purpose of levying a fine, the defendant,
knowing himself to brought for the purpose of levying a fine, the defendant,
knowing himself to be in the wrong, is supposed to make overtures of
accommodation to the be in the wrong, is supposed to make overtures of
accommodation to the plaintiff, who accepts them; but having given pledges
to prosecute his suit, plaintiff, who accepts them; but having given pledges
to prosecute his suit, applies to the court, upon the return of the writ of
covenant, for leave to applies to the court, upon the return of the writ of
covenant, for leave to make the matter up; this, which is readily granted,
is called the, licentia make the matter up; this, which is readily granted,
is called the, licentia concordandi. 5 Rep. 39; Cruise, Dig. tit. 35, c. 2,
22. concordandi. 5 Rep. 39; Cruise, Dig. tit. 35, c. 2, 22.
(Old. Law) (a) A writing which, requiring a counterpart, was engrossed twice
on the same piece of parchment, with a space between, in which was written
the word chirographum, through which the parchment was cut, and one part
given to each party. It answered to what is now called a charter party. (b)
The last part of a fine of land, commonly called the foot of the fine.
n. (Law) One who acknowledged the right of the plaintiff or cognizee in a
fine; the defendant. Blackstone.
plaintiff or cognizee in a fine
A written instrument given as evidence of agreement, transfer, or contract;
Something that is outside the property itself but is considered a part of
the property and adds to its greater enjoyment, such as the right to cross
another's land (i.e., easement or right-of-way).
From Old Scandinavian toft 'curtilage or homestead'; 'dweller at the croft
FEET OF FINES:-
The feet of fines first came into existence in the late 1100's as a means of
settling disputes and legal actions. At first only the two disputing parties
were given copies of the final agreement, but in 1195 it was decided a third
copy would be produced and retained by the court. This third copy as it was
realised became an assurance to the disputing parties that no one could in
later years produce a false copy of the original agreement and challenge
the agreement because the court still held a copy of the original document.
The original agreement would be written three times on one single piece of
parchment, two copies side by side and one copy at the foot of the
parchment. The three copies would be cut from the single parchment, the two
top copies for the disputing parties, and the copy at the foot of the
parchment would be retained by the court, hence the name FEET OF FINES!
It did not take that long for the landholders of the time to savvy the legal
assurances within the feet of fines, and how beneficial and legally binding
those assurances would be in the buying and selling of property.
Up to this time the sale of property was done by charter a system which had
loopholes that enabled any ensuing agreement to be challenged.
To have this sale of property put before the feet of fines one had to be in
dispute, so this was simply overcome by the two parties of a property sale
inventing a dispute, the buyer would become the plaintiff and the seller
would become the deforciant in most cases. This method would take up a lot
more time than the charter method, it also cost quite a bit more to sell
property this way as several fines would be levied in the hearing of one
dispute, but it gave both parties security. It also gave the buyer the
assurance of obtaining a warrent from the seller preventing any future
claims from members of the sellers family, or any other interested party.
Another feature of conveying property through the feet of fines was that the
wives of both parties could be named and participate in the proceedings,
which added the extra security of wives being unable to claim a dower on
the property should her husband die. Neither could the fine be challenged on
the grounds of a women being coerced by her husband.
It should be noted that there were genuine disputes settled also.
The sum recorded as a fine did not represent the amount of money that was
actually exchanged between the two parties.
The dates of the fines recorded are from the return days and the actual date
of the fine would be within approx 8 days after any particular return day.
These return days were the set dates for business within the court of
common pleas which were given a religious title as in the following examples
1552—EASTER TERM, 6 EDWARD VI.
1516—MICHAELMAS TERM, 8 HENRY VIII
1508—MICHAELMAS TERM, 24 HENRY VII.
These fines were abolished with Statute 3 and 4, Will. IV., c. 74, on the
31st December, 1833
The above is just a brief explanation of what the feet of fines actually
were, there are more in depth explanations on the web but I think the above
explanation serves the purpose here on these pages.
Source: Answers. com
Source: Webster 1913 Dictionary edited by Patrick J. Cassidy