South Yorkshire England
Pronounced locally Thrybur Old English Triberg
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The Dark Ages
spread to the Danes, peoples of North Germany, and the Jutes of Jutland that
England was an easy target and possessed good Land. So the invasion began
and the next race to rule Yorkshire was during this Anglo Saxon era who of
course were the Scandinavian's, and Vikings. In this period what is now
known as South Yorkshire was in the Northern section of the kingdom of
By the 6th century the Saxons were dominant in the South of England, and with them came a more advanced agriculture, they also began to introduce village life as they built small hamlets. The North of England was ruled by the Angles
With the Romans came Christianity, but the Saxons were mainly pagans and so a religious diversity was apparent. After the Romans departed, the church of Rome sent out for want of a better term "missionaries" to strengthen and organize the existing Christians and convert the pagans. A religious victory was gained in 663 at a synod in Whitby Yorkshire when the Saxon Christians agreed to join the church of Rome.
However many of them who became Christians still hung on to their pagan beliefs.
Alfred the Great Edward the Elder Athelstan the Glorious Edmund the Magnificent Edred Edwy the Fair Edgar the Peaceable Edward the Martyr Ethelred the Unready Sweyn Forkbeard* Edmund Ironside Canute the Great* Harold Harefoot Harthacanute (Canute the Hardy)* Edward the Confessor Harold Godwinson Edgar the Outlaw
Edgar Ætheling, also known as Edgar the Outlaw, (c. 1051c. 1126?) was the last male member of the West Saxon royal house of Cerdic. He was proclaimed, but never crowned, King of England. He was approximately sixteen years old at the time of the conquest when he made his claim.
Money and Words
The chart below is of the coinage used in Saxon times which as you will see gave us the pound shilling and pence in use today, and also the Mark used in Europe.
Now from the above and the list below we can see the influence of the Saxon language upon the language we use today in Yorkshire. For those of you that enjoyed the writings of Tolkien in his books 'The Hobbit' and ' The Lord of the Rings' you will find that Tolkien drew upon the history of the dark ages for much of his inspiration in the writing of these modern classics. In the books you will find that the Hobbits are referred to as 'Halflings' which is a term for a small coin used in Saxon times [ see chart above ]
You will also find that the name Frodo given to the main character of the Lord of the rings[ Frodo Baggins ] can be found within the doomsday book as a holder of lands.
DELPH--Ditch, dyke, Stream
FALL--Area cleared of trees
RIDING--Rod, cleared land
TON, TUN--House, Farm
WEALD--Wold, High woodland
WIC, 'WIKE--Farm, group of huts
At the time of the Vikings 750AD-1100AD we gained the following words:-
GARDR--Yard, landing place--
KELDA--Spring , stream
SLACK--Stream in a valley-
STAKKR--Rock in the sea--
THWAITE--Forest clearing, meadow
Venerable Bede, who was a monk of Jarrow 700. A.D. wrote of this period and stated that the from across the North sea came Angles, Jutes, and Saxons.
A small tribe of people who disappeared into obscurity
Came from Slesvig formally Angel which falls between the Sle and the Flensborg Fiord. Now these Angles certainly "Burnt their Bridges" because the entire nation came across, and they must have been pretty smart because they settled in what was to become the East Riding of Yorkshire. They are often confused with Saxons but they were not Saxon.
In-between the rivers of Weser and Elbeis is Holstien and this is where the Saxons originated from, and they headed to the South of England.
In the West Riding within which lies Thrybergh the Brigantian Celts were still around and dominant in the area. In circa 616 AD Edwin conquered the Britons of Helmet and the Angles then moved into the West Riding. The Britons and the Angles co-existed and became Christian
Now although the stone crosses found near to many Churches in Yorkshire are classed as Saxon, it was apparently a Celtic custom to signify a meeting place with a stone pillar, and they became symbolic of the Rood Cross carried by early missionary's, hence the pillars became known as crosses. There are two of these crosses at Thrybergh near to St Leonard's Church
The Church we know as St. Leonard's Church was probably established possibly circa 850- 950 A. D. or perhaps even earlier as a wooden church was built circa 540 A.D. in nearby Conisbrough. Circa 650-700 AD a stone constructed church replaced the wooden structure which became St Peter's Church and was a Saxon Minster church , the building today is listed as the oldest building in South Yorkshire.
Given that evidence then we can surmise that the church of St. Leonard at Thrybergh was initially a simple wooden construction, though the stone church was constructed at a later date than that of St. Peter's.It is noted that not all churches existing at the time of the doomsday book were listed.
The Church at Thrybergh was dedicated to St. Leonard of Limousin possibly in the late eleventh or early 12th centuries. Looking at the architecture of the Church now, it would have had several additions and alterations up to around the fourteenth Century leaving us with the Church in its present form.
The two major strongholds of the Scandinavian's were Yorkshire and Lincolnshire and they dominated from York to the east coast. The English language today contains around a thousand words that were of definite Scandinavian / Germanic origin used in Yorkshire.
The naming of the Towns and Villages in Yorkshire were from this origin. Thrybergh was spelt TRIBERG and as we all know it means three hills. The nearby Town of Maltby like many of the Towns in Yorkshire ends with BY which was the Scandinavian word meaning Town or Farm. Even today we are all aware of the term By-Law, which simply means Town Law.
The people of York are Britain's closest genetic relatives of the modern Danish.
We may be forgiven when reading the poetry of James Ross for thinking the word Cot is an abbreviation of the word Cottage, it is in fact not an abbreviation but the actual old word for a small dwelling or enclosure. [ Which tells us where the name Babies Cot derived. [ No cribbing on these pages ]
According to an Historian of the 1800's a line of
defence was created by the Northumbrians with fortifications at Doncaster,
Conisbourgh, and Thrybergh. This could be slightly inaccurate as also nearby
are the remains of a defensive wall [ Dyke similar to Offa's Dyke on the
Welsh border ] that stretched from Dore Sheffield through
Rawmarsh, Mexbourgh, and Conisbourgh. Which placed Thrybergh on the southern
border of Northumbria
On June 8th 793, the first recorded major Viking
attack occurred when a raiding party from Norway attacked the island
Lindisfarne. Many Monks were slaughtered, and it was a raid that struck fear
throughout Europe. The raids continued but it was not until 866, that a
major onslaught and invasion was made upon England.
One year later the Northumbrians led by King Aelle and Earl Osbert attempted to recapture York in March 867, this attempt led to the death of Earl Osbert. As for Aelle, the king of Northumbria his fate was to be captured and then he had his ribs torn out and folded back to form the shape of an eagle's wings. This punishment was a particular one to the Danes.
The Viking clothing was colourful yet simple, knotted head scarves, pinafores, shawls were worn by the women, and broaches to fasten the clothing together. A fashion that could be observed in the north of England amongst the working class during the 20th century.
Like all other Villages and Hamlets of the time
Thrybergh was to be greatly influenced by the Viking presence in the area.
Halfdene was the Viking leader who became very successful in battle and captured the Kingdom of Mercia in 874. This placed the Vikings in a very dominant position in the North of England they now ruled the eastern midlands as well. Within two years in 876 they divided the lands within the Deiran province of Northumbria, and also the whole of Yorkshire plus the land that is known today as Lancashire.
Great explorers as they were the Vikings actually discovered North America some 500 years before Columbus sailed the blue and claimed he was first to set foot on American shores. The Vikings had also reached the Middle East, and they discovered Iceland and Greenland.
Though William wisely ensured that he had the rule above the church in matters of state, the Roman church had a very large input into all affairs of state, until the time of Henry in the 16th century.
The families who owned Thrybergh were as follows.
Farthegn [ The name means FAR = traveller THEGN = Warrior However Thane is warrior and Thegn is also listed as servant. Confusing isn't it?
Now local historians name Northmann [ who was a grandson of Alwine and his grandfather was Farthegn] as holding Thrybergh. Though why he is simply referred to as Norman is somewhat confusing, because the Northmen were mostly known by individual names rather than the collective name of Norman which means "Northman"
However Northmann can be found in the doomsday book holding lands in Essex and Yorkshire, Northmann though they are not the same Northmann.
Prior to 1066 Fartegn, Alwine , and Tonni held a manor in Appleton Yorkshire from Wulfbert the predecessor of Osbern De Arches. The name Alwine occurs several times in the doomsday book.
Osbern De Arches: Mr. Hatfield, of Doncaster, gave a memoir on a sepulchral slab found built up in Thorp Arch Church, Yorkshire, and of the ancient proprietors of tbe parish, from Osbern de Arches, in the time of the Conqueror, and the De Bees family, in a later age.
Here then is a list of Saxon, and Viking names associated with Thrybergh, Dalton and Brinsworth in the Doomsday Book.
Arnketil; brother of Normann
Earnwig; Possibly a sheriff of York in 1072, or of Burton Abbey held TRE and in 1086 by Earnwig, a king's thegn, Shippen and Sturton comprised 4 carucates and were then held by Earnwig
Healfdene; not to be confused with Healfdene in the time of Beowulf
Ligulf; Domesday Book shows that Ligulf had held part of the manor of Bulmer, which was then (c. 1086) held by Nigel, of the Earl of Mortain of English blood.
Mauger; Sir Mauger Le Vavasour is mentioned in Doomsday Book, as holding in chief of the Percys, Earls of Northumberland,
Northmann; son of Ulf
Oswulf; May be the one who held the earldom of Bernicia and Northumberland, killed prior to 1067
Thorkil; Possibly Thorkil of Arden who held several lands [ TRE Tempore Regis Edwardi ]
Ulf; [ Ulfr ]Father of Northmann.
On a tomb in Alborough Church, in the East Riding of Yorkshire.
DB: Ulf (120). Frequent in PR (1131, 1166). In Domesday Book there are 7
Wulfstan Possibly St Wulfstan who died 1095
Alsige likely the nephew of Earl Ralph
Earnwine the priest; Kinsman of Godric
Alselin There are several with the surname of Alselin
Thorfinnr; probably the same Thorfinnr who held land in York prior to 1066
Aghmund; held land in Lincoln
Almaer; held land and had a antecessor named Almaer TRE
Another Ulfkil; W
Other than Thrybergh, Dalton, and Brinsworth some of the above including Northmann are also found in Hooton Roberts the neighbouring village of Thrybergh. As to what percent of the land they held I do not as yet know.
We are now in the period when Edward ruled and he ruled from 1042 until his death in January 1066 The period of Edwards rule is often referred to as 'TRE' which is the abbreviation for "Tempore Regis Edwardi" During the time of King Edward' The death of Edward was to change the future history of England, and this was when Harold claimed the throne at the deathbed of Edward, Harold claimed that Edward had named him as his successor, but Harold's cousin William Duke of Normandy claimed he had previously been named as the rightful heir to the throne.
Invading what is now Yorkshire in September, 1066, Harald Hardrada and Tostig defeated the English earls Edwin of Mercia and Morcar of Northumbria at the Battle of Fulford near York on September 20th. They were in turn defeated and slain by Harold's army five days later at the Battle of Stamford Bridge.
William Duke of Normandy arrived on English soil, and on October 14th 1066 the Battle of Hastings took place.
The resulting Norman victory is well recorded, the actual battle was not at Hastings but some miles to the north at Senlac.
Though William held the South it was to be quite a while before the North of England was well and truly under Norman rule, and even then there were constant upheavals within Williams Northern Kingdom.
The period known as the Dark Ages had come to an end, but the reign of William was not to bring peace by any means and it was to affect Thrybergh drastically!
I have no affiliation with any Trade Union, Political body, or organization regarding the information on this site. All information on this site is Factual and correct to the extent of my knowledge. There is no intent to cause offence to any individual. Should you spot an error please let me know and that error will be corrected.
This site is the result of over 7 years research,
and compilation, should you wish to use any of the content for
publication of literature please contact me. The poetry and life of
James Ross, the story of St. Leonard's Cross, and other items on this
site were compiled, and first published on this site in their present
context as a study of Thrybergh. If you use this site as a source, out
of courtesy, please give credit where it is due as I have done on this
site where appropriate.