Thrybergh Ravenfield Dalton

South Yorkshire England

            Pronounced locally Thrybur  Old English Triberg

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The Dark Ages


Word spread to the Danes, peoples of North Germany, and the Jutes of Jutland that England was an easy target and possessed good Land. So the invasion began and the next race to rule Yorkshire was during this Anglo Saxon era who of course were the Scandinavian's, and Vikings. In this period what is now known as South Yorkshire was in the Northern section of the kingdom of Mercia.
The Saxons were to destroy the buildings left behind by the Romans.


By the 6th century the Saxons were dominant in the South of England, and with them came a more advanced agriculture, they also began to introduce village life as they built small hamlets. The North of England was ruled by the Angles


With the Romans came Christianity, but the Saxons were mainly pagans and so a religious diversity was apparent. After the Romans departed, the church of Rome sent out for want of a better term "missionaries" to strengthen and organize the existing Christians and convert the pagans. A religious victory was gained in 663 at a synod in Whitby Yorkshire when the Saxon Christians agreed to join the church of Rome.

However many of them who became Christians still hung on to their pagan beliefs.

Kings Through The Dark Ages

Alfred the Great • Edward the Elder • Athelstan the Glorious • Edmund the Magnificent • Edred • Edwy the Fair • Edgar the Peaceable • Edward the Martyr • Ethelred the Unready • Sweyn Forkbeard*† • Edmund Ironside • Canute the Great*† • Harold Harefoot • Harthacanute (Canute the Hardy)* • Edward the Confessor • Harold Godwinson • Edgar the Outlaw

Edgar Ætheling[1], also known as Edgar the Outlaw, (c. 1051–c. 1126?) was the last male member of the West Saxon royal house of Cerdic. He was proclaimed, but never crowned, King of England. He was approximately sixteen years old at the time of the conquest when he made his claim.


Money and Words


The chart below is of the coinage used in Saxon times which as you will see gave us the pound shilling and pence in use today, and also the Mark used in Europe.




Troy Gains

Pennies in each

Value in 1818

The Pound



£2. 16s. 3d

The Mark



£1. 17s 9d

The Mancus of Gold



£0. 7s  0¼d

'D' of Silver



£0. 7s  0¼d

The Or



£0. 4s  8¼d

The greater Shilling



£0 1s 2d

The smaller D



£0  0s 11¼d

The Thrisma



£0  0s 8½d

The Penny



£0  0s 2¾d

The Sceatta

£0  0s ¾d

The Halfling 11 £0  0s  0¼ &½
The Feorthling £0  0s ¾d
The Styca 'Brass' 0 0 £0  0s  0¼ &½


Now from the above and the list below we can see the influence of the Saxon language upon the language we use today in Yorkshire. For those of you that enjoyed the writings of Tolkien in his books 'The Hobbit' and ' The Lord of the Rings' you will find that Tolkien drew upon the history of the dark ages for much of his inspiration in the writing of these modern classics. In the books you will find that the Hobbits are referred to as 'Halflings' which is a term for a small coin used in Saxon times [ see chart above ]

You will also find that the name Frodo given to the main character of the Lord of the rings[ Frodo Baggins  ] can be found within the doomsday book as a holder of lands.

SAXON 350AD-1000AD


BURG--Large Village

CROFT--Small enclosure

COT--Small hut

DELPH--Ditch, dyke, Stream

DEN--Pig pasture


FALL--Area cleared of trees











RIDING--Rod, cleared land


STOC--Summer Pasture

STOKE--Daughter Settlement

STOW--Holy place

TON, TUN--House, Farm

WEALD--Wold, High woodland

WIC, 'WIKE--Farm, group of huts


WORTH--Fenced land

WORTHY--Enclosed land

At the time of the Vikings 750AD-1100AD we gained  the following words:-



BOOTH--Summer pasture

BY--Farm, Village


FELL,'HOW--Hill, Mound



GARDR--Yard, landing place--




GILL--Ravine ,Valley

INGS--Marsh, Meadows


KELDA--Spring , stream










SLACK--Stream in a valley-

STAKKR--Rock in the sea--




THORP--Daughter settlement

THWAITE--Forest clearing, meadow



WRAY--Remote place.


Venerable Bede, who was a monk of Jarrow  700. A.D. wrote of this period and stated that the from across the North sea came Angles, Jutes, and Saxons.



A small tribe of people who disappeared into obscurity



Came from Slesvig formally Angel which falls between the Sle and the Flensborg Fiord. Now these Angles certainly "Burnt their Bridges" because the entire nation came across, and they must have been pretty smart because they settled in what was to become the East Riding of Yorkshire. They are often confused with Saxons but they were not Saxon.



In-between the rivers of Weser and Elbeis is Holstien and this is where the Saxons originated from, and they headed to the South of England.


In the West Riding within which lies Thrybergh the Brigantian Celts were still around and dominant in the area. In circa 616 AD  Edwin conquered the Britons of Helmet and the Angles then moved into the West Riding. The Britons and the Angles co-existed and became Christian

Now although the stone crosses found near to many Churches in Yorkshire are classed as Saxon, it was apparently a Celtic custom to signify a meeting place with a stone pillar, and they became symbolic of the Rood Cross carried by early missionary's, hence the pillars became known as crosses. There are two of these crosses at Thrybergh near to St Leonard's Church



The Church we know as St. Leonard's Church was probably established possibly circa 850- 950 A. D. or perhaps even earlier as a wooden church was built circa 540 A.D.  in nearby Conisbrough. Circa 650-700 AD a stone constructed church replaced the wooden structure which became St Peter's Church and was a Saxon Minster church , the building  today is listed as the oldest building in South Yorkshire.

Given that evidence then we can surmise that the church of St. Leonard at Thrybergh was initially a simple wooden construction, though the stone church was constructed at a later date than that of St. Peter's.

It is noted that not all churches existing at the time of the doomsday book were listed.



 The Church at Thrybergh was dedicated to St. Leonard of Limousin possibly in the late eleventh or early 12th centuries. Looking at the architecture of the Church now, it would have had several additions and alterations up to around the fourteenth Century leaving us with the Church in its present form.


The two major strongholds of the Scandinavian's were Yorkshire and Lincolnshire and they dominated from York to the east coast. The English language today contains around a thousand words that were of definite Scandinavian / Germanic origin used in Yorkshire.

The naming of the Towns and Villages in Yorkshire were from this origin. Thrybergh was spelt TRIBERG and as we all know it means three hills. The nearby Town of Maltby like many of the Towns in Yorkshire ends with BY which was the Scandinavian word meaning Town or Farm. Even today we are all aware of the term By-Law, which simply means Town Law.


The people of York are Britain's closest genetic relatives of the modern Danish.


We may be forgiven when reading the poetry of James Ross for thinking the word Cot is an abbreviation of the word Cottage, it is in fact not an abbreviation but the actual  old word for a small dwelling or enclosure. [ Which tells us where the name Babies Cot derived. [ No cribbing on these pages ]


According to an Historian of the 1800's a line of defence was created by the Northumbrians with fortifications at Doncaster, Conisbourgh, and Thrybergh. This could be slightly inaccurate as also nearby are the remains of a defensive wall [ Dyke similar to Offa's Dyke on the Welsh border ]     that stretched from Dore Sheffield through Greasebrough, Rawmarsh, Mexbourgh, and Conisbourgh. Which placed Thrybergh on the southern border of Northumbria
When you look at the location of Thrybergh park it was in a perfect defensive position.


On June 8th 793, the first recorded major Viking attack occurred when a raiding party  from Norway attacked the island Lindisfarne. Many Monks were slaughtered, and it was a raid that struck fear throughout Europe. The raids continued but it was not until 866, that a major onslaught and invasion was made upon England.

  A large army of Danes invaded East Anglia and were led by a Viking known as Ivar the Boneless,  Halfdene and Hubba the brothers of Ivar were also present. In the Spring Ivar headed north to Northumbria which was just recovering from a civil war. The Danish intent was to capture York, for they knew to capture York was crucial to the conquest of Northumbria. The capture of York was a hard fought battle from which the Danes emerged victorious in November 866.


One year later the Northumbrians led by King Aelle and Earl Osbert attempted to recapture York in March 867, this attempt led to the death of Earl Osbert. As for Aelle, the king of Northumbria his fate was to be captured and then he had his ribs  torn out and folded back to form the shape of an eagle's wings. This punishment was a particular one to the Danes.


After placing Egbert an Anglo Saxon as the new King in what was Northumbria, the next step for the Vikings was to attack the Kingdom of Mercia.
Now this may come as a surprise to many of you but the Viking Helmet in truth never had horns attached as shown in many depictions, including the one  above. The horns were more than likely added by later artist to give them a devilish appearance, and of course the movies went along with this. What is known is that unlike the Romans there was no uniform worn by the Vikings, they provided their own clothing.
Colourful tunics made of wool or linen were worn underneath leather Jackets, not forgetting the old woolly socks and shoes made of calfskin.
The Warriors carried quite an array of weapons, a knife, sword, spear, and the axe with which they are always depicted. The bow and arrow was not the favourite weapon of the Vikings but their archers could hit a target well over 200 metres away, it is thought that the bowstring was made of Women's hair.  Shields were usually round, made of wood, and metal attached to the centre.
Here is an interesting bit,  we know of the term " To go Berserk" well the Vikings had groups of warriors who were known as Berserkers, who were thought to use drugs to reach a frenzied state, and as you can imagine in battle they would have been a terrifying opponent. Sounds like the forerunners of today's football hooligans.

Surprise and fear were the main tactics that ensured the Vikings victories, and defeat was not accepted even when hopelessly outnumbered the Vikings formed a circle and fought to the last man, little wonder then that France eventually paid them not to attack, and eventually gave them what became known as Normandy.

Again it is to be noted that the key to the power of England was centered upon York, it was a trading stop over and provided routes to East and West as well as North to South and had easy access. So throughout the period from Roman times to the Normans, Yorkshire and the North of England held most of the power that was to keep England a divided country
Despite their warlike reputation the Vikings and Danes were to bring more peaceable attributes to the Island of Britain, for they were also farmers, fishermen, skilled tradesmen, great explorers, not to mention boat builders. Many farming implements have been found from this period , picks, hoes, ploughshares and sickles, they also built in timber, stone and Sod.

The Viking clothing was colourful yet simple, knotted head scarves, pinafores, shawls were worn by the women, and broaches to fasten the clothing together. A fashion that could be observed in the north of England amongst the working class during the 20th century.

Like all other Villages and Hamlets of the time Thrybergh was to be greatly influenced by the Viking presence in the area.

Halfdene was the Viking leader who became very successful in battle and captured the Kingdom of Mercia in 874.  This placed the Vikings in a very dominant position in the North of England they now ruled the eastern midlands as well. Within two years in 876 they divided the lands within the Deiran province of Northumbria, and also the whole of Yorkshire plus the land that is known today as Lancashire.


Great explorers as they were the Vikings actually discovered North America some 500 years before Columbus sailed the blue and claimed he was first to set foot on American shores. The Vikings had also reached the Middle East, and they discovered Iceland and Greenland.


Now the Vikings were not Christian they had their own Gods and of course the Vikings were labeled Pagans because of this, and during this period of English history Christianity wavered, particularly in the North. Even good old King Canute [ Cnut ] supposedly kept his pagan beliefs, despite having a Christian wedding. Yet Christianity survived this dark period. By the time the Normans arrived in 1066, the church of Rome had already sub divided the land, and with the invasion of England by the Normans in 1066 Christianity was firmly re-established, the church of Rome now had power throughout the land as it did in the rest of Europe.

Though William wisely ensured that he had the rule above the church in matters of state, the Roman church had a very large input into all affairs of state, until the time of Henry in the 16th century.



The families who owned Thrybergh were as follows.

Saxon ?

Farthegn [ The name means FAR = traveller THEGN = Warrior  However Thane is warrior and Thegn is also listed as servant. Confusing isn't it?

Now local historians name Northmann [ who was a grandson of Alwine and his grandfather was Farthegn]  as holding Thrybergh. Though why he is simply referred to as Norman is somewhat confusing, because the Northmen were mostly known by individual names rather than the collective name of  Norman which means "Northman"

However  Northmann can be found in the doomsday book holding lands in Essex and Yorkshire,  Northmann though they are not the same Northmann.


Prior to 1066 Fartegn, Alwine , and Tonni held a manor in Appleton Yorkshire from Wulfbert the predecessor of Osbern De Arches. The name Alwine occurs several times in the doomsday book.

Osbern De Arches: Mr. Hatfield, of Doncaster, gave a memoir on a sepulchral slab found built up in Thorp Arch Church, Yorkshire,— and of the ancient proprietors of tbe parish, from Osbern de Arches, in the time of the Conqueror, and the De Bees family, in a later age.


Here then is a list of Saxon, and Viking names associated with Thrybergh, Dalton and Brinsworth in the Doomsday Book.


Arnketil; brother of Normann

 Earnwig;  Possibly a sheriff of York in 1072, or of Burton Abbey  held TRE and in 1086 by Earnwig, a king's thegn, Shippen and Sturton comprised 4 carucates and were then held by Earnwig

Healfdene; not to be confused with Healfdene in the time of  Beowulf

 Ligulf; Domesday Book shows that Ligulf had held part of the manor of Bulmer, which was then (c. 1086) held by Nigel, of the Earl of Mortain of English blood.

Mauger; Sir Mauger Le Vavasour is mentioned in Doomsday Book, as holding in chief of the Percys, Earls of Northumberland,

Northmann; son of Ulf

Oswulf;  May be the one who held the earldom of Bernicia and Northumberland, killed prior to 1067


Thorkil; Possibly Thorkil of Arden who held several lands [ TRE Tempore Regis Edwardi ]

Ulf; [ Ulfr ]Father of Northmann. On a tomb in Alborough Church, in the East Riding of Yorkshire.
Ulf het araeran cyrice for hanum and for Gunthara saula.
Ulf bid rear the church for him, and for Gunthar's soul.

DB: Ulf (120). Frequent in PR (1131, 1166). In Domesday Book there are 7

Wulfstan Possibly St Wulfstan who died 1095

Alsige likely the nephew of  Earl Ralph

Earnwine the priest; Kinsman of Godric

Alselin There are several with the surname of Alselin


Thorfinnr; probably the same Thorfinnr who held land in York prior to 1066


Aghmund; held land in Lincoln

Almaer;  held land and had a antecessor named Almaer TRE




Another Ulfkil; W


Other than Thrybergh, Dalton, and Brinsworth some of the above including Northmann are also found in Hooton Roberts the neighbouring village of Thrybergh. As to what percent of the land they held I do not as yet know.


We are now in the period when Edward ruled and he ruled from 1042 until his death in January 1066 The period of Edwards rule is often referred to as 'TRE' which is the abbreviation for "Tempore Regis Edwardi" During  the time of King Edward' The death of Edward was to change the future history of England, and this was when Harold claimed the throne at the deathbed of Edward, Harold claimed that Edward had named him as his successor, but Harold's cousin William Duke of Normandy claimed he had previously been named as the rightful heir to the throne.



Invading what is now Yorkshire in September, 1066, Harald Hardrada and Tostig defeated the English earls Edwin of Mercia and Morcar of Northumbria at the Battle of Fulford near York on September 20th. They were in turn defeated and slain by Harold's army five days later at the Battle of Stamford Bridge.

 William Duke of Normandy  arrived on English soil, and on October 14th 1066 the Battle of Hastings took place.

The resulting Norman victory is well recorded, the actual battle was not at Hastings but some miles to the north at Senlac.

Though William held the South it was to be quite a while before the North of England was well and truly under Norman rule, and even then there were constant upheavals within Williams Northern Kingdom.

The period known as the Dark Ages had come to an end, but the reign of William was not to bring peace by any means and it was to affect Thrybergh drastically!



Norman Times




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This site is the result of over 7 years research, and compilation, should you wish to use any of the content for publication of literature please contact me. The poetry and life of James Ross, the story of St. Leonard's Cross, and other items on this site were compiled, and first published on this site in their present context as a study of Thrybergh. If you use this site as a source, out of courtesy, please give credit where it is due as I have done on this site where appropriate.
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