Dalton

Dalton Magna, Dalton Parva,

Dalton Brook.

A Personal Website by

John Doxey.

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Roman To Norman

 

Thanks to a Mr. Lewis of  Dalton Parva who found two roman coins in 1977 we know that Dalton was visited by Romans [ Or owners of Roman coinage].  SMR No. 01240.01 - A Roman coin recovered from NGR SK 4580 9380. One AE 4 of Constans (337-346). Trier Mint. Found by Mr. Lewis, 136A, Dalton Lane, Dalton Parva, in August 1977.
and  SMR No. 01240.02 - A Roman coin recovered from NGR SK 4580 9380. One follis of Constantinus as Caesar (293-305) .

 

Doncaster Road is accepted as a route taken by Romans and perhaps even earlier travellers between Rotherham and Doncaster, and it passes through Dalton.

Which suggest that Dalton Parva was there as a small Hamlet, bearing in mind that the surviving villages in England today were almost all in existence prior to the Norman conquest.

 In his book "The Making of the English Landscape" Professor W. G. Hoskins believes that many of the thriving Villages of today stand on sites first chosen by Bronze Age or Neolithic Farmers!

 These Villages stand on hilltops, which is exactly what the Village of Dalton Parva does, it is important to know that most of the Villages mentioned in the doomsday book were already several hundred years old, and Dalton is entered there in the doomsday book.

 

 In the book "The Battle of Brunanburh and Its Period Elucidated by Place-names " by John Henry Cockburn  - Page 260 John states that Whinney Hill between Aldwarke and Thrybergh may also be associated with Owain of Strathclyde.

[ Anyone researching this battle would perhaps be well advised to obtain a copy of Johns book]
 

The Battle of Brunanburh was a West Saxon victory in 937 by the army of King Athelstan of England and his brother Edmund I of England over the combined armies of Olaf III Guthfrithson Olaf III Guthfrithson king of Dublin, Constantine II of Scotland [ CausantŪn mac Ńeda II ] and King Eůgan I of Strathclyde [ Owain ]. Now historians are still debating the actual place where this battle was fought but nearby Brinsworth is a leading contender.


 

Earl Harold, who was to become the ill-fated King Harold I of 1066 , famous for being in the wrong place at the wrong time and being killed by an arrow in the eye, owned extensive lands at Dalton. 

 

1066

The owner or Ruler of Dalton pre the Doomsday book was Norman [ Northmann] who was the main landholder in Thrybergh, Dalton, and Brinsworth when Edward the Confessor was on the throne. Norman was a grandson of Alwine and his grandfather was Farthegn who ruled Yorkshire. Given the fact that Norman was given Dalton with other estates in Yorkshire by his father, we can assume the village was pretty well established, 

William De Perci was given Dalton for his part in the overthrow of Yorkshire by William the conqueror, and in 1086 a man called Rozelin held land from William in Brinsworth, Thrybergh and Dalton.

 

 

 

  Place name:  Dalton in Rotherham, Yorkshire
Folio:  321v Great Domesday Book
Domesday place name:  Dalton/Daltone
People mentioned:  Arnketil; Dunstan; Earnwig; Everard, man of William de Percy; Fulk; Gamal; Gamal Barn; Godfrey; Healfdene; Ligulf; Mauger; Northmann; Oswulf; Picot; Roscelin; Thorkil; Ulf; William de Percy; Wulfstan
 
 Place name:  Dalton in Rotherham, Yorkshire
Folio:  321r Great Domesday Book
Domesday place name:  Dalton/Daltone
People mentioned:  Alsige; Church of Holy Trinity, York; Earl Harold; Gamal; Robert Malet; William de Warenne; [ 3 carucates ] Wulfstan

DALTONE [Dalton parish of Rotherham]
 
Date 1086
Catalogue reference E 31/2/2 
Dept Records of the Exchequer, and its related bodies, with those of the Office of First Fruits and Tenths, and the Court of Augmentations


Description Place name:  Dalton in Rotherham, Yorkshire
Folio:  379r Great Domesday Book
Domesday place name:  Dalton/Daltone
People mentioned:  Arnketil; Count Alan; Aubrey de Coucy, Earl of Northumbria; Earnwine the priest; Erneis de Buron; Geoffrey Alselin; Gilbert Tison; Gospatric; Ilbert de Lacy; King William as landholder; Osbern d'Arques; Ralph Paynel; Robert Malet; Robert, Count of Mortain; Roger de Bully; Seaxfrith; Thomas, Archbishop of York; Thorfinnr; Thorkil; Walter d'Aincourt; William de Percy; William de Warenne

 

ďOf fees of the new feoffment the eight knightsí fees which had belonged to Adam son of Sveinn, which in 1166 were in the tenure of William de Neville, his son-in-law, appear to have been assessed at the rate of 12 carucates making a knights fee, an equation specified in three charters of late 12th and early 13th century date.Ē Note: A carucate was in theory the area that a single eight ox plough-team could plough in a single year. It has been suggested that a Bovate in Yorkshire was probably between 8 and 15 acres but could be as low as 4 or as many as 28.
 In 1166 Denby was held by Adam de Montbegan, husband of Maud, Sveinnís grand-daughter......
suggested that Thomas and Margaretís holdings were descended from William de Neville and Adam de Montbegan the immediate heirs by marriage of Adam son of Sveinn........ The descent of the mesne of Dalton can be traced back to the pre conquest period as in 1086 it was held by Sveinn, Adamís father and in 1066 by Alric, Sveinnís father.

p.961 Filius Suein, Adam

 

As we can see from the above the ownership of Dalton was fairly involved, what is known now as Dalton Parva and Dalton Brook lay within the domain of Thrybergh, whilst the area's now known as Woodlaithe, Sunnyside, and Dalton Magna were owned by the King. Norman lords then were the main tenants whilst the lesser names above were sub tenants as in Northmann. However even the lesser names above were very high ranked at the time.
Dalton Parva at this time consisted of  five freemen and 13 smallholders the whole area of Dalton is approximately 1400 acres of land.  Land held by William De Warrene contained
3 carucates   5 sochmen and 13 bordars with 4 ploughs Pasturable wood(land) 1 furlong in length and 1 in breadth

In our minds eye then we can picture the area of Dalton back then, no pollution, far of views, a rich green mixture of woodland, water, and pastures, indeed land fit for a King!

The History of Dalton is strongly associated with Aldwarke, which seems to have been the residence of the owners of parts of Dalton through the centuries. Aldwarke although located in Rotherham was under the parish of  Ecclesfield, wapentake of Strafforth, Dalton was listed a township and chapelry in the parish of Rotherham, S. division of the wapentake of Strafforth.

Briefly [and I will stand corrected ] the names associated with Aldwarke over the centuries began with  a family named Aldwarke with a Reginald de Aldwarke I born 1103 Agnes Waleis daughter of Roger Waleis and Agnes Aldwarke married a William Clarell approx 1295 they had a son named Thomas Clarell born about 1296 died before 1364.Thomas had a son William Clarell born about 1326 at Aldwarke William Clarell married Elizabeth Reygate and had a son Thomas Clarell of Aldwarke born about 1357 at Aldwarke he died in 1442 reason of death he drowned in the River Don. Thomas Clarell, of Aldwarke, born 1394. married Matilda daughter and heiress of Margery Foljambe, wife of  Sir Nicholas Montgomery, of Cubley, Knight.

From Thomas and Matilda descended Alice Fitzwilliam, heiress of Aldwarke, who married  Sir James Foljambe, Knight. Hence the names of Aldwarke, Clarell, Fitzwilliam, and Fuljambe were tied. Other Aldwarkes through the centuries were, Agnes de Aldwarke , Agnes Aldwarke, Galfrid de Aldwake , Reginald de Aldwarke , Reginald de Aldwarke, Reginald de Aldwarke Richard de Aldwarke, Robert de Aldwarke, Robert de Aldwarke, Roger de Aldwarke, Roger de Aldwarke, Roger Aldwarke and William de Aldwarke

 

So what was life all about for the simple folk in Dalton and the rest of England in this period, well the pecking order was as follows.
The Feudal System
Introduced into England by William the Conqueror, this system was used to divide the land in England and also assure William of support from those he gave land to.
The Monarch [ in this case William ] received rent in the form of loyalty and military support from his tenants in chief, who he gave land to.
The lords and bishops who were the tenants in chief, gave knights for 40 days a year to serve in the monarchs army, and also money , prayers , and advice.
Bishops and clergy lower than bishops became Sub- Tenants, gained land in return for aiding the tenants in chief
The Peasants were allocated land and paid taxes by i.e. crops, and also by working on the lords or knights land.
England was divided as follows 20% to William, 50% to Norman Lords, 25% to the Catholic Church, 5% to Anglo Saxon Lords. Important positions of course were given to the Norman's.


It is noted that the Roman Catholic Church played a large role in the politics throughout the ages, and it also became very wealthy. Many of the nobles left property, money and land to the church, plus the church collected a tithe tax from the people, which was 10% of what they grew. The barn used to store this tax became known as a tithe barn. The church also had its own Laws which we know as cannon law. Education was provided by the church, but only to children of wealthy Parents. The Church at this time taught that women were inferior, and should be content to be just good mothers.


About 90% of people were peasants in this era, the villages and land around them were called Manors, and were owned by a lord. The lords own farm was known as a demesne, and the church land was known as a glebe. The vegetable garden to a house in the village was called a toft.

A Reeve was someone chosen by villages to oversee the farmwork, and negotiate with the lords representative. The word Sherriff comes from the Anglo Saxon "scir gerefa" which means Shire Reeve.

 

Taxes were imposed for using the mill owned by the lord to make flour, the oven to make bread, the brewery to make beer,, when daughters were married or sons were born, and when the poor unfortunate peasant died, well death duty was around back then.

 

The peasants serfs or villeins who had the misfortune to be owned by a lord, were indeed  slaves, they had to ask permission for most of the events in their lives, getting married , leaving the village, selling belongings, teaching their children.  
SERF:
1

A member of the lowest feudal class, attached to the land owned by a lord and required to perform labour in return for certain legal or customary rights.
2

An agricultural labourer under various similar systems, especially in 18th- and 19th-century Russia and eastern Europe.
3

A person in bondage or servitude.

 

In 1086 a man called Rozelin held land from William in Brinsworth, Thrybergh and Dalton. Now it is surmised by Harry Speight in his book Lower Wharfedale: 1902 that On the demise of Rozelin before 1096-7, William de Percy ... That the death of  Rozelin took place before the death of William de Percy in 1096-7

 

In 1166 eight fees in the honour of Pontefract were returned as held by William de Neville, the husband of Amabel, daughter of Adam son of Sveinn son of Alric. These eight fees were of the new feoffment and therefore created after 1135 since 80 years previously Alric had held land which came to form part of these eight fees, it would appear that Alric [ Aluric ]and his son Sveinn (d.1129) continued to hold their land in thegnage but that, before his death in 1159, Adam, son of Sveinn must have had the mode of his tenure converted to knight service. "

 

 In 1166 Denby was held by Adam de Montbegan, husband of Maud, Sveinnís grand-daughter......
suggested that Thomas and Margaretís holdings were descended from William de Neville and Adam de Montbegan the immediate heirs by marriage of Adam son of Sveinn........ The descent of the mesne of Dalton can be traced back to the pre conquest period as in 1086 it was held by Sveinn, Adamís father and in 1066 by Alric, .

! If Adam de Svein and Rozelin were Co-heir's then it implies that both of them descended from Alric. These Co-heirs then enjoyed the knights fee's of several estates under De Perci. Which also tells us that Alric aided the Normans in 1066.

 Alric was a Saxon not a Dane!

 

 

 

 

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